Cognitive Psychology (Fach) / Chapter 10 (Lektion)

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Language

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  • What are two different views concerning cognitive processes and language? 1) The first view is that language has connections to other  cagnitive capacities (e.g. working memory, long term memory, thinking and reasoning)   2) Language processes cannot be simply understood  in terms of aspects of memory, resoning and other cognitive processesthat help us make sense of the world. It is argued that language must rely on a relatively autonomous set of abilities, each having its own knowledge base and the whole affair functioning independently from other cognitive processes.
  • What is psychologists main concern in working out what processes are involved ? 1) How do speakers turn their ideas into words? 2) How do listeners or readers understand what is written or said / How do listeners words into ideas?
  • In language comprehension and language production there seem to be three levels involved. What are they? Speech sounds, words, sentences (+ the level of discourse)
  • What is the sound of speech called? Phonetics.
  • What is the sound system of a particular language called? Phonology.
  • What is described by morphology? Word formation.
  • Syntax means what? The combination of words into phrasesand sentences.
  • The meaning of words phrases and sentences is refered to as what in linguistics? Semantics.
  • Discourse is what? Activities using language which extend beyond individual sentences.
  • What does the field of phonetics investigate? The process of the articulation of speech and the physical characteristics of speech and sound waves.
  • Phonetics belongs to which of the three big levels? Speech sounds.
  • Do all the differences in speech sounds also make a differences in meaning within a language? Noooo of couuurse not!
  • What is the difference between phonetics and phonemes? Phonetics are concerned with the sound of speech. Phonemes are the smallest units of sounds that has an effect on meaning (e.g. pin/ bin)
  • How many different phonemes has the english language? 40
  • What are lexical items? Simply words.
  • What are morphemes? Smallest linguistic units  that carry meaning.
  • What are two different forms of morphemes? Free morphemes, bound morphemes.
  • What are free morphemes and bound morphemes? Free morphemes can be used on their own as words. Those morphemes cannot occur on their own are known as bound morphemes.(-s, -ing, -est)
  • Prefix and Suffix belong to which of the two different morphemes? Bound morphemes.
  • Inflectional endings is another word for which, prefixes or suffixes? Suffixes
  • What stands in contrast to content words? Grammatical function words.
  • What is psycholinguistics? The psychological study of language.
  • Who is important in the field of language? Noam Chromsky.
  • What does language performance refer to ? The psychological processes involved in language use, as opposed to competence; the knowledge of language said to underlie that use.
  • What is language competence? The linguistic knowledge hypothesized to underlie the ability to use language.
  • How do linguists gain access to language competence? asking speakers to judge whether strings of words are grammatical or not.
  • Every sentence can be given two grammatical descriptions, what are they? 1) Surface structure 2) Underlying structure
  • When the underlying structure or a sentence is the same, is it possible to reform that sentence? Yes.
  • Two sentences can be very different at surface level but ... ... similar or the same on the underlying level.
  • What does it mean when sentences are "reversible"? It means that parts of that sentence can be changes and the sentence still makes sense.
  • What takes longer for participants to process? A reversible or a non-reversible sentence? A reversible sentence.
  • Is there a difference in processing speed between a passiv non-reversible sentence and an active non-reversible sentence? Nee.
  • Are spoken word and written word recognition similar or identical ? Different disorders let us conclude that separate systems are at work.
  • What influences word recognition? 1) Frequency 2) Words orthographic neigborhood 3) Sound of words 4) Context (semantic priming testing) 5) Mental lexicon  
  • What is the mental lexicon? The body of knowledge we hold about words, including their pronunciation,spelling,meaning and typical syntactic roles.
  • "How do we access the appropriate word so efficiently" is answered by how many main types of models? Two.
  • What are the two different main models that explain lexical access? Direct access models and serial search models.
  • What is the assumption of direct access models? Lexicon contains a detection device for each lexical item within it. features of words, such as letters, or component sounds activate detectors for many possible candidate lexical entries simultaniously until one becomes pre-eminent.
  • What is the assumption of serial search models? Lexical entries are examined one by one to match to features of the input.
  • The autonomous serial search model belongs to which main model? Searial search model.
  • Which model assumes that the lexicon contains a detection device for each item? Direct asscess model.
  • Direct assess model = detection device True or false? True.
  • To which of the two main types of lexical models does the logogen model belong? Direct access model.
  • The logogen model is based on which concept? It is based on the concept of threshold.
  • " A search is carried out through the access files until a match is made" fits to which of the main models of lexical access? Serial search models.
  • What is a logogen? A logogen acts as a feature counter and passively accumulated evidence.
  • How is the threshold in the direct access models lowered? Every time a word is encountered the threshold is lowered. Therefore, the next time that word is heard processing works quicker.
  • Logogen models are highly connected to which other sort of models, bzw worked as their pre cursor? Connectionist models.
  • What two types of ambiguity are there? Structural ambiguity , Lexical ambiguity.
  • What is structural ambiguity? Ambiguity that arises from the possibility of parsing a phraseor sentence in more than one way.